伏流—馬來西亞與台灣歷史文化的牽連 Underflow - The Historical and Cultural Connection between Malaysia and Taiwan




CURATOR
許遠達 HSU Yuan-Ta

ARTISTS
方偉文 FANG Wei-Wen
林煌迪 LIN Huang-Ti
林書楷 LIN Shu-Kai
拉黑子.達立夫 Rahic.Talif
吳其錚 WU Chi-Zeng
陳妍伊 CHEN Yen-Yi
黃逸民 HUANG Yi-Min
黃志偉 HUANG Chih-Wei
蔡宗祐 TSAI Tsung-Yu
謝宏明 HSIEH Hung-Ming

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Underflow - The Historical and Cultural Connection between Malaysia and Taiwan
Hsu Yuan-Ta (Assistant Professor of the Department of Fine Arts, Tainan University of Technology)

"Underflow" came from the search of relevance between the historical development of Malaysia and Taiwan. After the national independence movements in Southeast Asia since the World War II, the two seemingly irrelevant countries turned out to have been closely connected since ancient times due to the ocean. Therefore, "Underflow" intends to uncover the historical development and cultural relationship that have long been covered by political borders. 


In terms of either the differentiation and migration of Austronesian languages, or the branches of the diverse Austronesian languages, Taiwan is closely related to South Pacific Islands. Whether it is inferred from the differentiation of language family or the genetic diversity theory of paper mulberry, scholars currently agree with the "Out-of-Taiwan model" in terms of the Austronesian origins. There are certainly a lot of theories behind; however, just considering that the languages used on Orchid Island and Batam Island are 60% similar, and that there is also similarity in their clothing and food habits, the traces of migration are quite evident. Furthermore, scholars have proved that Austronesian languages are somehow related in terms of the numbers, and all the Austronesian languages have the same pronunciation of five as "lima". On the other hand, the mass migration since Ming and Qing Dynasties is also something Taiwan and Malaysia have in common. According to researches on the Malaysian immigration history, there were already prosperous commercial activities and cultural interactions with China back in Tang and Song Dynasties. There were Chinese immigrants during the Yuan Dynasty as well. The Ming treasure voyages also left many immigrants and historical sites in Melaka. As for the relationship between Taiwan and Mainland China, according to the Shihsanhang ruins and Blihun ruins, the earliest nautical trade already existed in prehistoric Early Iron Age. Recorded history of Chinese immigrants dates back to Tang, Song and Yuan Dynasties, and during the Ming and Qing Dynasties, large numbers of Chinese people crossed the Taiwan Strait and immigrated in Taiwan. As a result, there are great similarities in the Chinese immigrant history, language, culture, religion and food. 


Besides, during the Age of Discovery in the 17th century, Taiwan and Malaysia were both colonized by the Portuguese and the Dutch Empire, so many colonial architecture and culture remain. For example, a Taiwanese unit of measurement "jia" (甲) came from the Dutch word "akker" when colonized by the Dutch and the Spanish. A typical Dutch architectural feature called "Muuranker" is seen everywhere in Malaysia. Moreover, the Anping Fort and the Chihkan Tower in Taiwan, and the Red House in Melaka are well-known historical sites. Thus, Malaysia and Taiwan have much in common in terms of the indigenous and Chinese cultures. They were both influenced by World War I and II, and broke from the political and military colonization after the wars. 


However, due to the geographical and natural environment, the historical culture and the neighboring immigrant culture, Malaysia and Taiwan have developed different cultures of their own. For example, the Malaysian, Malaysian Austonesian and neighboring languages merged into the Baba-Nyonya. And Taiwanese Chinese have developed many linguistic and food cultures that are hugely different from the immigrants’ hometowns. In terms of religion, take the temple religion for example. Due to the economic development with the colonizing empire and the colonial administration, Malaysian Chinese established "hui guan" (會館, literally meaning "meeting hall") in the name of "kongsi" (公司, literally meaning "company"), for the immigrants originating from the same Chinese province. In Taiwan, due to the rule of the Kingdom of Tungning, the tradition of local committee remains. Besides, languages and food cultures have turned out even more different because of many other connections.
Therefore, the exhibition is curated out of the concept of "underflow", expecting to explore and gaze the underflow by means of these creative works originated from history, culture, religion, language and so on by each artist. Through the works of the artists in this exhibition, we hope that the underflow of Malaysian and Taiwanese history and culture get to be seen. 


伏流—馬來西亞與台灣歷史文化的牽連
文/許遠達 台南應用科技大學美術系助理教授

「伏流」來自於馬來西亞與台灣歷史發展間的關聯性探尋,二次戰後的東南亞民族獨立潮流後,看似無所關聯的兩個國家,卻因海洋而自古有著許多密切的牽連關係。因此,以「伏流」企圖顯現那些長久以來被政治界線遮掩的歷史發展與文化關係。
無論是南島語系的分化遷移,或是南島多元語系的分支,台灣與南太平洋群島的關係密切,無論是依據語系的分化推論抑或是以構樹遺傳多樣性理論,目前南島起源被學者認為是「出台灣說」。這裡面當然學者有諸多的理論,但單就蘭嶼與巴丹島的語言有60%相似,加上穿著、飲食等等,都有著極為明顯的遷移痕跡。而學者更證明了南島語言在數字上的語音若干對應關係,而其中數字五(lima)的發音在各語族間無所不在。抑或是明清以來華人的移民潮,據學者研究馬來西亞移民史唐宋十已有密切的商業活動及文化交流,元代時即有華人在當時定居,明代鄭和下西洋更於馬六甲留下許多的移民與歷史遺跡。而台灣與中國大陸的關係從十三行遺址及近來挖掘的漢本遺址看來,台灣最早在史前的前鐵器時代與中國大陸即有航海貿易的關係。而在文字記載的華人移民在唐、宋、元以來即有交往,明清時期,即有大量的華人跨越黑水溝前來移居。因此,華人的移民史、語言、文化、宗教信仰、飲食有著極大的類似性。
另外,在17世紀大航海時期也都接受過葡萄亞人與荷蘭人的帝國殖民階段,因此也都遺留了許多的殖民建築遺跡與文化,如台灣的「甲」的單位便是來自於荷西殖民時期荷蘭語「akker」的文化遺緒,及荷蘭的鐵剪刀建築形式,在馬來西亞亦隨處可見,台灣的安平古堡、赤崁樓、麻六甲的紅屋更是知名的歷史遺跡與古蹟。由此,馬來西亞與台灣在原民文化、華人文化有著許多的相關性。於戰後,也都經歷了世界第一、第二次大戰的歷史渦流,而於戰後脫離政治軍事殖民。
然而,卻由於地理、自然環境與歷史文化與鄰近地區移民文化的發展不同的文化差異,如馬來西亞與馬來南島族群及鄰近族群語言融合下所形成的峇峇娘惹(Baba-Nyonya)族群,而台灣的華人也發展了許多與華人移民原鄉極大差異的語言與飲食文化。在宗教上舉寺廟信仰為例,馬來西亞華人族群因與殖民帝國間的經濟發展與殖民地治理的關係,而以「公司」為名,建立族群的會館,而台灣則因明鄭的關係,而維持地方傳統頭人的委員會方式。另外,語言與飲食更是在許多的連結下發展著更多的差異。
因此,本展以「伏流」的概念成展,期望藉由個藝術家由歷史、文化、宗教及語言各方面的創作,探索伏流,凝視伏流,藉由本展藝術家作品的展現使馬來西亞與台灣的歷史文化伏流得以可見。


Organizer:絕對空間 Absolute Space for the Arts 
Co-organizer:Lostgens
贊助單位:ACC 亞洲文化協會

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